Anti-microbial action and Tissue Repair/Regeneration
Calcium hydroxide sealers exhibit antimicrobial activity and have osteogenic-cementogenic potential. Calcium hydroxide is antimicrobial depending on the availability of free hydroxyl ions. It has a very high pH (hydroxyl group) that encourages repair and active calcification. There is an initial degenerative response in the immediate vicinity followed rapidly by a mineralization and ossification response.
Root canal sealers and filling materials may be exposed to the periradicular tissue at the apical and lateral foramina so superior tissue tolerance to sealer is required to minimize local and systemic side effects. Calcium-containing sealer exhibited less toxicity and exhibited therapeutic effects on the surrounding tissue.
Calcium hydroxide sealers should be stored in a cool, dry, well- ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's hazard communication standard. Following proper storage guidelines is essential as separation can be observed if the material is stored at a very high temperature.
The anti-microbial action of Calcium Hydroxide sealers prevents persistent residual infection and micro-organisms from re-entering through the oral cavity.
The hydrophilic nature of Calcium Hydroxide sealer reduces the contact angle of the sealer and increases sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules.
Calcium Hydroxide sealers induce hard tissue formation in both Periodontal Ligament (PDL) and bone.